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Optional online quizzes: College student use and relationship to achievement. four cognitive domains: factual, application, comprehension, and conceptual. App aims to keep couples happy in relationship with quiz-style game or long- distance relationship couples; couples with kids or without," she. Take a look at 's best mental health apps and hear from the experts Take one of our 2-minute mental health quizzes to see if you could.
While the literature consistently supports the convenience of online quizzes, and there is some evidence of associated learning benefits, many questions remain.
The current investigation sought to: To what extent do students make use of optional online quizzes in preparation for proctored examinations? Do differences in patterns of use relate to differences in student achievement? Is student use of optional online quizzes influenced by item format i. Does item format relate to student achievement?
Methods and Procedures Optional Online Quizzes Students in four sections 40 students per section of an undergraduate educational psychology course were encouraged to use optional WebCT quizzes in preparation for in-class examinations. Throughout the academic term, students were reminded of the availability and potential benefits of these study tools. Students had unlimited access to 28 online quizzes; 14 true-false and 14 short-answer. While every effort was made to anticipate student short-answer responses e.
Since quiz scores did not contribute to final course grades and students were encouraged to consider the optional quizzes as tools of study, students determined the accuracy of short-answer entries e. Drawn from instructional support materials provided by the course textbook publisher Renaud,one true-false and one short-answer quiz reflected the content of each of 14 textbook chapters.
The true-false quizzes included items that required recall of specific fact e. In most cases, such scoring limited items to recall of specific fact e. The number of items in each quiz varied from 18 to 36 and students accessed all items, in the same order, every time they opened the quiz in WebCT.
All quizzes were available from the first day of the course until completion of the final examination. Participants Toward the end of the academic term, students in the four sections of the educational psychology course were invited to participate in the study by allowing their course examination marks and WebCT records to be used for research purposes.
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Course numbers decreased over the term due to withdrawals as well as absenteeism. In the end, students participated in the study.
These students ranged in age from 18 to 33 years mean Participants reported an average of 18 college credits complete range 0 to With regard to intended plans for Bachelor of Education degree completion, Measures To address the research questions, two student variables were measured: Student Use of Optional Online Quizzes Given that quizzes were optional and unlimited, quiz marks were not valid measures of student use of these study tools.
That is, students may have taken a quiz prior to studying to determine areas of weakness; other students, given that marks were not recorded, may have submitted a quiz prior to responding to all items. Student academic achievement Student achievement was measured with the multiple choice test items on three proctored in-class midterm examinations and one final examination.
The midterm examinations were not cumulative, and each assessed student knowledge of a relatively limited amount of course material. The final examination was cumulative, and assessed mastery of all course content. Each midterm examination contained 24 multiple choice items and the final examination contained 80 multiple choice items 36 items assessed previously tested material and 44 items assessed material subsequent to the third midterm examination.
While the midterm and final examinations included case study analyses, due to subjective marking, these items were not included in any metric of student achievement. Multiple choice items were evenly distributed across four cognitive domains i.
Each domain included 38 examination items i. Correct responses for each type of multiple-choice proctored test item were summed across all examinations. The result was four objective measures of student academic achievement, that is, four scores that reflected the total number correct on factual, application, comprehension, and conceptual in-class multiple-choice test items.
Table 1 presents a description of these measures of academic achievement for the group of participating college students. Descriptive Statistics for Measures of Student Academic Achievement Data Analysis Descriptive statistics provide an indication of the extent of student use of the optional online quizzes. Pearson Product Moment correlational analysis determined the relationship between student use of optional online quizzes and academic achievement.
Further, students were grouped on the basis of extent of quiz use i. Results and Discussion As presented in Table 2, it was determined that students made limited use of the optional online quizzes. Approximately two-thirds of participating college students submitted at least one optional quiz during the academic term. The average number of true-false quizzes submitted was 3. Given that the majority of students submitted at least one quiz during the academic term, access and navigation were not likely concerns.
While approximately two-thirds of the students appeared to check out the online quizzes, few appeared to systematically use the optional online quizzes as tools of study. Student Use of Optional Online Quizzes Table 3 presents correlations between the number of quizzes that students submitted and the four measures of academic achievement. As student use of optional online quizzes increased, academic achievement tended to increase.
In general, short-answer quiz items related more strongly to measures of student achievement than did true-false items.
It may be that short-answer quiz items, which required the actual input of words, engaged students in course content at a deeper level than simply checking true or false. However, no significant relationship emerged between number of optional short-answer online quizzes submitted and student achievement as measured by conceptual test items.
Primarily factual short-answer quiz items may not have facilitated the cognitive processing necessary to respond to conceptual measures of learning i. Which type of attribution would best reflect learned helplessness. Indeed, true-false quiz items can demand complex levels of cognitive processing e. Compared to those with field-dependence, people with field-independence are more likely to function well in a social setting, and prefer subjects such as history.
To summarize, student use of optional online quizzes was associated with academic achievement but quiz format differentially related to achievement across cognitive domains. Correlations between Use of Optional Online Quizzes and Academic Achievement To further analyze the relationship between use of optional online quizzes and academic achievement, students were categorized on the basis of extent of quiz use.
Students who did not submit a quiz throughout the academic term were grouped and labelled as no-use. As presented in Table 4, it was determined that 43 students did not submit a true-false quiz and 31 students did not submit a short-answer quiz. Given that 14 true-false and 14 short-answer quizzes were available, low-use students were defined as those who submitted between one and four quizzes, moderate-use students were those who submitted between five and nine quizzes, and high-use students were those who submitted between 10 and 14 true-false and short-answer quizzes.
Such categorization allowed for comparison of group means on the four measures of academic achievement. Student Use of Optional Online Quizzes As presented in Table 5, analysis of variance revealed a pattern of achievement associated with levels of student use of true-false online quizzes. Student achievement on factual and application in-class examination items was not significantly related to variation in use of optional online true-false quizzes.
These two cognitive categories of multiple choice in-class examination items had the highest achievement averages refer to Table 1. In-class examination items that students found less challenging were not related to online quiz use. Comprehension and conceptual in-class test items appeared challenging for students means of Completion of true-false quizzes may have facilitated the cognitive processing necessary to answer challenging examination questions; conversely, students with higher-level thinking skills may have gravitated toward the challenges of the true-false online quizzes.
In the case of in-class comprehension test items, only high-use was associated with increased student achievement; students who submitted more than 9 of 14 true-false online quizzes had a mean of However, both moderate and high-use of true-false quizzes differentiated student achievement as measured by in-class conceptual examination items means of Perhaps, even moderate-use of online true-false quizzes is related to enhanced student cognitive competencies or, conversely, cognitively competent students submitted more than 4 of 14 optional true-false online quizzes in preparation for in-class examinations.
Online True-False Quiz Use and Academic Achievement As presented in Table 6, a different pattern emerged from analysis of variance for student use of optional short-answer online quizzes. On all measures of in-class achievement i. Online short-answer quizzes may have enhanced student learning or, alternatively, high achieving college students may generally capitalize on available study tools.
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Use of optional online quizzes was not incrementally related to student achievement. As also suggested by patterns of true-false quiz use presented in Table 5students who made no-use of optional online short-answer quizzes outperformed students who made low-use of that study tool. For example, on the in-class conceptual examination items, students who did not submit a single optional short-answer quiz during the academic term achieved a mean of It may be that students who did not use optional online quizzes engaged in other study strategies.
Student who made limited use of optional online quizzes may have been characterized by generally disorganized study behaviour. Random assignment of students to one of two instructional conditions i.
Thus, while the current investigation has limitations, the results from this study do provide direction for future research.
First, when provided with optional online quizzes, about two-thirds of college students accessed such support for learning. It appears that the majority of students were largely unmotivated to use the online quizzes. Future research may clarify the reasons that students fail to use online practice quizzes to prepare for in-class examinations. Does the extent of online quiz use increase or decrease during the academic term?
Do online quiz scores influence continued use?
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Do in-class examination results influence use of online quizzes? Second, student use of optional online quizzes was associated with increased academic achievement, although it is not clear if use caused achievement or achievement caused use.
Future research may clarify the specific mechanisms that link academic achievement with use of online practice quizzes. Perhaps a reciprocal exchange occurs. That is, effective learners capitalize on available study resources which cause increased achievement which causes further commitment to access study tools which causes increased achievement and so on. Third, different patterns of achievement were associated with different types of optional online quiz item types.
Student submission of true-false online quizzes was associated with achievement as measured by in-class examination items that required high-level thinking skills i. Student submission of short-answer online quizzes was associated with all cognitive categories of student achievement i.
While the textbook test item bank indicated cognitive domain for multiple choice items, no such categorization was provided for the true-false and short-answer items. Visual inspection of online quiz items revealed that short-answer items primarily assessed factual knowledge while true-false items assessed the full range of cognitive domains i. Subsequent investigation may more carefully align the cognitive demands of in-class examination items with the cognitive demands of optional online quiz items.
Fourth, the current investigation was constrained by the WebCT Quiz Tool and the optional nature of the online quizzes. Student use of an online quiz was operationalized as any mark recorded for that student in the WebCT Grades Tool i. When a student submitted a quiz but answered no item or no item correctly, the Grades Tool recorded a score of zero for that student for that quiz.
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