levels of language – such as morphology or semantics – are examined. do not always expect language to be divided into levels in linguistics. Arguments in words in combination with each other to form phrases or sentences. . relationship between long and short vowels is no longer as obvious as in other varieties. The fact that semantics deals with the set of studies in meaning, then, it has to get so tied to the different levels of linguistics. Among these levels. organisation (paradigmatic level). M. i i li. (i. 3. meanings that have no close relationship to the non- scientific use Semantics and other linguistic disciplines.
But Chomsky and others were not happy about the division, and today there are many syntacticians who keep themselves away from the "dangerous" interface with semantics. Now, to be more specific about your question, but still general about the definitions, I think that you could see syntax as independent from semantics but not the other way around.
Let's say the goal of syntax is to develop theories about the similarities and differences between linguistic structures within and across languages. Let's also assume that we can study elements that are necessary for those structures to be well-formed, and that their meaning is not essential for the interpretation of the whole structure.
Then it is possible to say that syntax does not need semantics, or that it is structure what determines meaning. Whether that is interesting or helpful is up to the syntacticians who work under such view.
Relationship Between Semantics and other Levels of Linguistics and Branches of Linguistics
As for semantics, it simply cannot be studied without reference to syntax, for any meaningful phrase or sentence is always a that, a phrase or a sentence, so it must have a certain structure. If we want to study language in a more comprehensive way, I think the relation bewteen syntax and semantics must be one of interdependence, and thus it is more fruitful to study the way structures are built up and also the meaning that arises from such building operation.
Just as we have structure building from a syntactic perspective, we have function application from a semantic perspective. This is one of the several general descriptions of the relation between syntax and semantics, but again, the specific views depend on the theories of syntax and semantics which you are working with. Even if the view is that syntax and semantics are related in some way, there are approaches in which syntactic and semantic structures are generated independently, for instance 1 below.
The two interpretations or readings of an ambiguous phrase can be depicted diagrammatically as follows: The structure i indicates that, both the students and the teachers are kind; the structure ii indicates that only the students are kind. Figure i correspond to the reading in which kind modifies both students and teachers. This is shown by having the adjective combined with a category that includes both nouns. In figure iion the other hand, the adjective combines only with the noun students.
Semantics - Wikipedia
This structure corresponds to the reading in which kind applies only to students. Another case of structural ambiguity can also be found in the following sentence: We need more industrious teachers On the first meaning of more industrious teachers, more is grouped with industrious to form the phrase more industrious. On the second meaning, industrious is grouped with teachers to form the phrase industrious teachers.
One way to represent the difference in structure is to bracket together the two words that form a phrase. The assignment of thematic roles Another aspect of semantic interpretation involves determining the role that referents of NPs play in the situations described by sentences. In most linguistic analysis, at least the following thematic roles are recognised. Theme - the entity undergoing an action or a movement. Source - the starting point for a movement. Location - the place where the action occurs.
The examples of thematic roles can be seen as in the sentences such as the one below; Musa bought a shirt at the supermarket.
The sentence above contains an agent and a theme. This is because the verb buy has the type of meaning that implies an entity that does the buying an agent and an entity that gets bought a theme. Similarly, the supermarket is taken to denote the location of the action because of the meaning of the preposition at.
Rather than concentrating on individuals, sociolinguistics is centered on the speech community defined as any group of people who share some set of social conversions, or sociolinguistic norms regarding language use.
In sociolinguistics meaning is limited according to social context as follows: Jargon for example is a register characterized by specific vocabulary that are connected to a particular profession or activity. It is generally developed to facilitate communication within a group and can also be used to indicate membership in the group and even work to exclude non-member. For example, the word masticate used by doctor may not be easily understood by other people who are not experienced in such field, the word simply means to chew.
Also the use of slang which refer to the use of faddish or lexical item which lead to demarking group membership. Those not belonging to a group cannot understand what is said when slangs are used.
As it is sensitive to current style it changes rapidly. Semantics and Computational linguistics Computational linguistics deals with the application of computers to work with language. As in computational linguistics, computers work with language aspects such as translation of languages from one language to another. Therefore, in order for the computer to translate words, sentences and large text to another language correctly, they should firstly be semantically as well as grammatically meaningful so as words or sentences into the second language would also be meaningful.
The wrongly constructed words, sentences, or large text in the first language leads to wrong translation in the second target language. Semantics and psycholinguistics Psycholinguistics is the field that attempts to answer questions about how language is represented and processed in the brain and what areas of the brain are used for language processing, Tserdanelis, Any damage to brain results into loss of language ability known as aphasia.
Reading and writing skills involve a complex array of perceptual and motor skills.
relationship between semantics and other level of linguistics? | Yahoo Answers
The impairment of reading skills is called acquired dyslexia. The impairment of writing skills is called acquired dysgraphia. Acquired dyslexia is divided into two as follows. Phonological dyslexia is a type of acquired dyslexia in which the patient seems to have lost the ability to use spelling — to — sounds rules.
Phonological dyslexics can only read words that they have seen before. Asked to read a word such as blug aloud, they either say nothing or produce a known word that is visually similar to the target, example blue or bug. Surface dyslexia is the opposite of phonological dyslexia. Surface dyslexics seem unable to recognize words as wholes.
Instated, they must process all words through the set of spelling -to-sounds rules. This is shown by the kinds of errors they make. Surface dyslexics do not have difficulty reading words such as bat that are regularly spelt.
When asked what the word means, the patient would answer; the opposite of cold. Damage in this area can lead to production of meaningless speech.
Hence the damage in the area leads to inability in language comprehension. It is applied to language teaching and learning courses in English for special purpose SPE which are based on the knowledge that native speakers use language differently depending on subject matter and audience.
For example, therefore a scientist who needs English will not need to know how to discuss. Dickens or diplomacy but will have to learn all the technical terms associated with his profession and the preferred structures that scientists use. Applied linguistics concerned with the application of linguistics theories, methods and findings to the elucidation of language problems which have arisen in other areas of experience.
The most well developed branch of applied linguistics is the teaching and learning of the foreign languages and sometimes the term is used as if this were the only field involved. The major relationship between applied linguistics and semantics is on teaching and learning foreign languages. It is sometimes called Diachronic Linguistics; which is the way of referring to the study of language s at various point of time and at various historical stages, Nida, The meaning or semantic representation of words may change, becoming broader, narrow, or shifted.
Also a speaker of 17th century English meat which meant food and flesh meant meat. Since that time, semantic change has narrowed the meaning of meat to what it is modern English.
Relationship between semantics and other level of linguistics?
Also semantic change can be seen as the meaning shift, for example, bead originally meant prayer, the meaning of the bead shifted from prayer to the visible sign of the prayer. Logic as the study of the organization of rational thought especially laws of valid of inference philosophers. In the present century this age, old study has evolved allied to mathematics, now it seems, linguistics is invading the territory.
A semantic representation is also a logical representation. Until the sixties linguists largely concentrated their attention on the surface structure of linguistic expressions phonology and syntax rather than the structure of meaning underlying these. Since then the same sort of consideration which led philosophers to be dissatisfied with syntactic structures as the guide to logical relations has also led linguists to search for a deeper structure as semantic or logical representation to explain the meaning of a sentence and their relation to its form, Leech, For example, someone, anyone, everyone and similar quantifier expressions do not behave in the same way as words like John, Bill and Daphne, though they have the same grammatical functions as noun acting as subject and object.
Examples; Daphne is beautiful.