Information about the role of the Oireachtas, how laws are made, voting in A Seanad election takes place up to 90 days after Dáil Éireann has dissolved. The first meeting of Dáil Éireann took place on 21 January The Constitution provided that the Seanad should be composed of citizens who had done. A Bill may start life in either the Dáil or the Seanad. In practice, the vast majority of Bills originate from the Government and are passed by the Dáil first. Seanad Éireann normally meets on Wednesdays and Thursdays.
The term oireachtas Irish pronunciation: Its first recorded use as the name of a legislative body was within the Irish Free State. An election is held at least once every five years as required by law, however, the house can be dissolved at any time at the request of the Taoiseach head of government. The President of Ireland is directly elected once every seven years, and may serve a maximum of two terms, however, if, as has occurred on a number of occasions, a consensus among the larger political parties can result in only a single candidate being nominated, no actual ballot takes place.
Bills to amend the Constitution must also be approved by the People in a referendum prior to being presented to the President. In most circumstances, the President is in effect obliged to sign all laws approved by the Houses of the Oireachtas, although he or she has the power to refer most bills to the Supreme Court for a ruling on constitutionality. The powers of the Seanad are in effect limited to delay rather than veto.
The general enacting formula for Acts of the Oireachtas is: Powers[ edit ] The Oireachtas has exclusive power to: However, the courts  have allowed the Oireachtas to delegate limited legislative powers to other entities, such as Government Ministers. Raise military or armed forces. Allow international agreements to become part of the domestic law of the state.
Pass certain laws having extraterritorial effect in accordance with the similar practices of other states. Enact, when it considers a state of emergency to exist, almost any law it deems necessary, with imposition of capital punishment being the only absolutely excluded act in all circumstances. Limitations[ edit ] Laws are invalid if, and to the extent that, they contradict the constitution. In the event of a conflict, EU law also takes precedence over acts of the Oireachtas, as is common throughout the European Union.
Seanad Éireann - Wikipedia
It may not retrospectively criminalise acts that were not illegal at the time they were committed. The Senate of Southern Ireland consisted of a mixture of Irish peers and government appointees.
- Functions of the Seanad
The Senate convened in but was boycotted by Irish nationalists and so never became fully operational. It was formally abolished with the establishment of the Irish Free State in but a number of its members were soon appointed to the new Free State senate.
Cosgrave agreed to use his appointments to grant extra representation to the state's Protestant minority. The procedures for election of senators were amended before the first Seanad election by the Constitution Amendment No. It was intended that eventually the entire membership of the Seanad would be directly elected by the public but after only one election, inthis system was abandoned in favour of a form of indirect election.
Initially casual vacancies in the Seanad were filled by vote of the remaining members. However this system was replaced under the Constitution Amendment No.
The Free State Seanad was abolished entirely in after it delayed some Government proposals for constitutional changes. This new Seanad was considered to be the direct successor of the Free State Seanad and so the first Seanad convened under the new constitution was referred to as the "Second Seanad".
The new system of vocational panels used to nominate candidates for the Seanad was inspired by Roman Catholic social teaching of the s, and in particular the papal encyclical Quadragesimo anno.
In this document Pope Pius XI argued that the Marxist concept of class conflict should be replaced with a vision of social order based on the co-operation and interdependence of society's various vocational groups. Calls for reform[ edit ] Since twelve separate official reports have been published on reform of the Seanad.