Two key in elements the context of sport, including coaches and athletes. Effective role in shaping the quality of relationship processes, as defined by the 3Cs of Close relationship between coach and athlete by creating a friendly and safe. In this article, the authors discuss the methodological framework and research process of a qualitative-interpretive investigation that was conducted to gain a. The three key constructs used to examine coach-athlete relationship are closeness, There seems to be a wealth of research emphasising coaches positive.
Therefore, it is important that we have an understanding of effective relationships and ways to resolve conflicts. An important concept of dealing with conflict is maintaining the relationship.Coach-Player Relationship
Dindia and Canary described relationship maintenance as strategies used to keep a relationship in a specified state or condition. Ways to maintain relationships may include discussing an area of disagreement and coming to a joint decision of how it can be resolved i. Although no sport psychology research has directly considered relationship maintenance within the coach-athlete relationship, some research appeared to address issues related to maintenance strategies.
In the interviews, these coaches emphasized the importance of communication i. Thus, the use of maintenance strategies in sport has been indirectly associated with positive outcomes. ReferencesShow all Coatsworth, J. Enhancing the self-esteem of youth swimmers through coaching training: Gender and age effects.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22 7, Definitions and theoretical perspectives on maintaining relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, Coaching life skills through football: A study of award-winning high-school coaches.
Journal of Applied Sport 10 Psychology, 19, Structures of coach - athlete relationship obtain of three elements including commitment, closeness and being complementary [ 46 - 8 ]. Most athletes, coaches and even sports remember the tournaments in which, despite the technical and physical preparation, poor mental preparation has been prevented of athlete or team success.
Many sports psychologists believe that coaches and athletes in recent years have concluded that In order to achieve their goals they need more mental skills than physical skills [ 9 ].
Based on the theory and social context of Bandura [ 10 ], self efficacy in coaching, defines the extent and potential effectiveness of each coach in the learning and performance of their athletes [ 11 ] and includes four factors: Albert Bandura showed that self efficacy is a special case of self-confidence which means the power of individual believes that they can do the tasks they have been given, successfully. It should be noted that Individual performance in competitions can not be guessed and casual but there is a direct relationship between his performance and his self efficacy that its measurement is very effective in assessing his performance.
Even by that his performance can be predicted before the competition. All of closeness and intimacy, commitment and complementary are important in establishing and maintaining successful and effective interactions [ 12 ]. Efficacy beliefs Provides prominent personal factors that have important applications in quality of athlete -coach Relationship. Efficacy beliefs may play important role in shaping the quality of relationship processes, as defined by the 3Cs of closeness, commitment, and complementary [ 13 ].
Close relationship between coach and athlete by creating a friendly and safe environment can avert their minds of worries and mental discomfort that may be created by the coach and focus on the exercise and lead to strong and successful performance of Individual or team. It should be noted that the performance of athletes in a competition dose not refer to himself, infact athlete converse demands and wishes of a group to success or failure.
So the strengths and weaknesses of group is effective in the way an athlete perform his tasks. Of these factors which are associated with an athlete or sports team such as team manager, coach and technical staff by their actions and behaviors can provide positive or negative result for the athlete or team.
Of course the role of environmental factors also should be ignored. It is the art of the coach that by his insight thoughts and positive interaction with athletes receives benefit from these factors in favor of his athletes and reaches to the proper performance and finally be wining. In this context we will investigate the effect of self efficacy on the coach — athlete relationship that can be considered as a predictive factor can be considered as a factor in sporting successes.
Materials and Methods Statistical population of this survey are male coaches and athletes of sports leagues in team fields football - basketball and individual wrestling - Taekwondo including coach of selected teams and athletes students of related coaches. Due to the size of population and random selection table of Morgan 92 coach and athletes was chosen as sample from purpose statistical population.
Coaches and athletes statistical sample of sports leagues Measurement Instruments 1. This item measure taps into perceptions of closeness, commitment, and complementary in the coach—athlete relationship e. To examine the reliability of the questions, the Cronbach's alpha and To check the validity of the test questions and to test meaningful relationships between the questions and variables and estimating obtained measurement models confirmatory factor analysis was used and finally in order to investigate the effect among research variables structural equation model SEM and specifically path analysis by Lisrel software was used.
The output of software also shows the suitability of fitted structural model to test the hypotheses. Model in the estimated coefficients standard Figure 2: Model in the Meaningful coefficients Table 2.
Measurement model of self efficacy variable on coach — athlete relationship Discussion Scale of coaching effectiveness, measures the coach believes in his capabilities to impress his athletes learning and their performance [ 15 ]. Obviously the thoughts, motives, feelings, and behavior of humans vary in situations where he feels confident in his ability and situations in which he feels insecurity or lack of competence.
Perceived self-efficacy of human affect one's thought patterns, motivation, performance and emotional arousal [ 16 ].
Perception of self-efficacy is like a cognitive mediator of human action. This perception Affect human thought and action.
Importance of the coach-athlete relationship
This theory stays that external determines and individual determinants of behavior, such as attitudes, norms and beliefs affect people's behavior. Significant others can influence positive reinforcing or negative effects inhibiting on behavior and actions of individuals.
Coaches that are the most influential person on the athlete and also other technical staff can provide positive or negative result for the athlete or team by their actions and behaviors. Thus, mental fitness or high self — efficacy of coaches has a great impact on the success of athletes. Jowett and Frost [ 17 ] also state that coach - athlete relationship quality can be affected by many factors. Although several aspects influence on coach - athlete relationship but the psychological aspect is very important.
Changes of result in competitions when the coach in the half-time or the rest of the players speak can attest to the important role of the coach. When each sports club or organization can achieve its goals set for that have qualified and competent coaches. Trainers who could understand the condition and situation and understanding of mental and physical abilities of athletes and their subordinates and choice the best and most appropriate way to achieve the goals.
Vargas-Tonsing [ 18 ] states that the coaches have the potential to affect on self efficacy and emotions of athletes before the competition and through talking before the game. Olympiou, Jowett and Duda [ 19 ], in their research demonstrated that the features which included in the motivational climate created by the coach namely those that the importance of cooperation and progress was emphasized were along with experience of a higher level of intimacy, commitment and complementary with coach.
Features which in the climate created by coach emphasized on punitive response to mistakes, competition and unequal recognition were along with lower level of intimacy, commitment and complementary with coach. Coach self efficacy is effective on deepen relation between coach and athlete and formed positive relationships will be followed with good performance and success of athletes.
So it is better to achieve success, the coaches be aware of needs, motives and mental and physical characteristics of themselves and the players. Therefore, it is desirable that coaches and athletes have proper understanding of their psychological conditions and with mutual understanding of the relationships take a firm step towards success and pride. It seems that harmonious passion of coach matching with his obsessive passion leads to better relationship between coach and athlete.