Adaptive morphology & sensation
Good examples of these adaptations can be seen in a tuna fish, shown below. This picture also shows water flow over the fusiform shape. Most epipelagic organisms have countershading (see the tuna on the previous page): dark .. are flashes of biological light (bioluminescence) produced by the organisms themselves. Apr 3, Organisms that are adapted to their environment are able to: . Skin of most aquatic forms is rich in mucous glands to make it slippery. Fishes The body contour is cylindrical, spindle–shaped, or fusiform (e.g., earthworms, moles, badgers) so as to reduce . Epigenetics: Genome, meet your environment. Fusiform is the scientific term used to describe the perch's streamlined, torpedo shaped body. See Table for additional descriptions of fish body shapes. . Fin Combination Diagram, Description, Adapted function .. In the epidermis of most fishes are cells that produce mucus, a slippery material like runny gelatin, that.
Spines have a variety of uses. In catfishthey are used as a form of defense; many catfish have the ability to lock their spines outwards. Triggerfish also use spines to lock themselves in crevices to prevent them being pulled out.
Lepidotrichia are bony, bilaterally-paired, segmented fin rays found in bony fishes.
They develop around actinotrichia as part of the dermal exoskeleton. Lepidotrichia may have some cartilage or bone in them as well. They are actually segmented and appear as a series of disks stacked one on top of another. The genetic basis for the formation of the fin rays is thought to be genes coding for the proteins actinodin 1 and actinodin 2.
Most fishes have one dorsal fin, but some fishes have two or three. The dorsal fins serve to protect the fish against rolling, and assists in sudden turns and stops. In anglerfishthe anterior of the dorsal fin is modified into an illicium and esca, a biological equivalent to a fishing rod and lure.
Exploring Our Fluid Earth
The bones that support the dorsal fin are called Pterygiophore. There are two to three of them: In spinous fins the distal is often fused to the middle, or not present at all. The caudal fin is the tail fin, located at the end of the caudal peduncle and is used for propulsion. The caudal peduncle is the narrow part of the fish's body to which the caudal or tail fin is attached. The hypural joint is the joint between the caudal fin and the last of the vertebrae.
The hypural is often fan-shaped. Because the concentration of salt and other solutes in freshwater is lower than that inside the fish, the smallmouth is hypertonic in relation to its aquatic environment. This steep osmotic gradient favors the bodily intake of substantial amounts of water.
To necessarily combat this gradient, for purposes of maintaining adequate solute concentrations in its blood, the smallmouth continuously excretes dilute urine through its vent.
Its kidneys are vital to the process of osmoregulation, working hard to retain solute ions and excrete all of the excess water; they also work to filter out and remove nitrogenous wastes from the blood.
Amongst other things, the ion balance maintained by the kidneys is crucial in sustaining adequate pH levels in its bodily fluids. Contrary to what its common name implies, the smallmouth bass has a relatively large mouth for its body size when compared to many other fish species.
Its rather condescending pseudonym probably would not exist if not for the gigantic and wildly disproportional maw of its close relative, the largemouth bass. To ingest food, both smallmouth and largemouth tend to engulf, inhale, and swallow their prey whole, unlike other species that use large, sharp teeth to bite and tear their food into smaller pieces.
Bass do have tiny bands of villiform teeth that are barely noticeable to the unaided human eye. These teeth face inward and are coarsely distributed along the interior surfaces of their upper and lower jaws, palatines, pharynx and vomer. The size and orientation of its teeth reflect their function of grasping and holding onto prey items to prevent them from escaping. If you have ever held a bass by placing your thumb inside its lower jaw, you may have noticed that its teeth have a rough, bristle-like texture that feels a lot like sandpaper or the end of a brush; oftentimes, after holding multiple bass on the same day, these tiny teeth will leave negligible tears and indentations on the skin of your thumb.
- Fish Anatomy
- Fish anatomy
- SMALLMOUTH BASS
Rows of bony projections along the gill arches, called gill rakers, also function in retaining swallowed prey items and preventing them from escaping through the gill openings. For further information on food acquisition, digestion, and nutrient uptake, please see Diet and metabolism. It also grows along with other body tissues and providing points of attachment for muscle. The smallmouth bass and other fish don't receive many accolades in the intelligence category.
Anatomy | Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Generally, the brain is responsible for receiving environmental stimuli as input, which it interprets quickly and instinctively acts upon as output. Aside from instinctual responses to changes in the environment, the brain also exerts a certain level of control over autonomous functions, such as respiration and heartbeat.
The smallmouth bass utilizes a wide variety of sensory adaptations that are essential for its predatory lifestyle, and therefore survival. It is primarily a visual hunter, although the extent to which it relies upon sight varies accordingly with conditions such as water clarity and light penetration.
Water has a higher refractive index and absorbs more light than air, making it a generally poor medium for light to travel through. Its fixed-focus pupils can take in substantial amounts of light because a fair majority of the large, rounded eyes is externally exposed. It has been estimated that bass eyes are capable of receiving about five times more light than that of humans.
The lens cannot shape, but can be moved in and out to achieve some focus via retractor muscles. To adjust to varying degrees of light intensity at dawn or dusk, the irises open and close, although their mobility is limited. Each eye, located on its own respective side of the head, boasts an incredibly wide field of vision degrees.
Directly in front of the bass and slightly upward, the monocular fields overlap to employ binocular vision, which is most acute. The ability to see prey or potential danger from so many angles is a tremendous advantage that smallmouth bass utilize; directly below and behind the bass are relatively insignificant blind spots.
Rods within the retina provide for black and white vision along with shades of greywhile cones allow for distinguishing between various intensities of colors. These photoreceptors, which generate signals that are carried to the brain via an optic nerve, allow smallmouth to discriminate and choose between potential prey items. The smallmouth bass has been known to use differences in light intensity to their advantage in their hunting techniques. The tuberous receptors are most sensitive to the electric organ discharge of the fish itself, which is important for object detection.
The tuberous type of receptor is usually deeper in the skin than ampullae. Some fishes that produce electricity also use it for communication. Electric fishes communicate by generating an electric field that another fish can detect. For example, elephant fishes use electrical communication for identification, warning, submission, courtship, and schooling Fig. The elephant fish use electric impulses to communicate. Ears Sound travels well underwater, and hearing is important to most fishes.
Fishes have two inner ears embedded in spaces in their skulls. The lower chambers, the sacculus and the lagena, detect sound vibrations. Each ear chamber contains an otolith and is lined with sensory hairs. Otoliths are small, stone-like bones See Fig. They float in the fluid that fills the ear chambers. Otoliths lightly touch the sensory hair cells, which are sensitive to sound and movement.