Define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

Productivity Definition & Example | InvestingAnswers

define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

the use of all inputs, and is not restricted to the productivity of labour as in ONS's This article will explain how both government output and productivity are measured. close relationships year by year between expenditure and output. A. At some level of abstraction, the economist's definition of productivity is extremely simple and straightforward. It depends on an input-output relationship in which. Productivity is commonly defined as a ratio of a volume . and its relationship with gross output [15,16], including work on input–output formulations [17]. This led.

Trying to fit all effort or business outcomes within a productivity analysis to the detriment of innovative thinking.

define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

Basing analysis on easy to measure inputs and outputs for example capital and labour hours — this can create a false picture of where improvement efforts should be focused. These productivity misconceptions can cause organisations to lose sight of the things that actually drive business performance Any business could be forgiven for obsessing over productivity. Business guru Peter Drucker even wrote: Without productivity measurement, a business does not have control.

Appropriately defined productivity measurements are valuable feedback on business performance but they have no role in controlling business performance.

Productivity is like the dashboard in your car — the speedometer, tachometer and engine gauges — control comes from the way you use the foot pedals and steering wheel. An unbalanced focus on productivity can cause a business to lose sight of the fact that their people, workplace culture, business strategy and the continuous improvement framework are the real points of control — the brake and accelerator of business performance.

It can result in a business that reacts to the numbers rather than using the data as one part of a feedback mechanism on their improvement and adaptation activities. Make productivity a powerful part of your business performance platform Productivity is an important element of a thriving business. However, it is but one plank on the platform of business performance.

define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

Productivity analysis is much more powerful when used in conjunction with other approaches to improving business performance. Here are five ways to really get productive with your productivity: Understand the efficacy of your improvement activities. Use productivity as only one of several performance metrics that you use to assess the effectiveness of continuous improvement and business changes.

define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

Identify the underlying cause. They are often surrogate indicators of the real issues that need to be addressed.

Colleagues from Strategic Project Solutions in San Francisco tell a story about a call they got from a client in the UK asking for help with a labour productivity problem that could cost them millions of pounds in over-runs if not rectified. - Productivity/input /output

The client suggested time and motion studies to explore the reason for their labour problem but SPS took a holistic view of the situation to identify the underlying cause. They found the productivity issue stemmed from unreliable material supply — which in turn came from inaccurate and unreliable information from the client about the upcoming material requirements.

The client team mistakenly believed that the problem sat with their workforce because the productivity they were measuring was couched in output per labour hour.

Make the information relevant to the people doing the work. It is rare that productivity is a useful means of guiding the improvement activity of your business or teams. They rarely have direct control over the combination of inputs and outputs that make meaningful productivity measures. What they do control is the activities they do every day and how they interact as a team. Give your people metrics that are related to the work they are doing so they can see where improvements could be made.

Better still, develop measurements and associated analyses that give them useful information on what specific things they might do to improve. Create an environment that supports productivity. Create cross-functional teams to shape the environment in a way that allows teams to perform at their very best. On a recent project for a client, we were exploring how productivity measurements might be used as a KPI for continuous improvement.

One of the proposed metrics was design cost per dollar of direct product cost for some reason this industry likes to turn the productivity equation upside down.

Productivity - Wikipedia

Because they had assumed that design is an overhead or indirect cost their belief was that reducing design cost input is a positive productivity result. Productivity growth means more value is added in production and this means more income is available to be distributed. At a firm or industry level, the benefits of productivity growth can be distributed in a number of different ways: Productivity growth is important to the firm because it means that it can meet its perhaps growing obligations to workers, shareholders, and governments taxes and regulationand still remain competitive or even improve its competitiveness in the market place.

Adding more inputs will not increase the income earned per unit of input unless there are increasing returns to scale. In fact, it is likely to mean lower average wages and lower rates of profit.

define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

But, when there is productivity growth, even the existing commitment of resources generates more output and income. Income generated per unit of input increases. Additional resources are also attracted into production and can be profitably employed.

define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs and outcomes

Drivers of productivity growth[ edit ] See also: Productivity improving technologies In the most immediate sense, productivity is determined by the available technology or know-how for converting resources into outputs, and the way in which resources are organized to produce goods and services.

Historically, productivity has improved through evolution as processes with poor productivity performance are abandoned and newer forms are exploited. Process improvements may include organizational structures e.

A famous example is the assembly line and the process of mass production that appeared in the decade following commercial introduction of the automobile. A similar pattern was observed with electrificationwhich saw the highest productivity gains in the early decades after introduction.


Many other industries show similar patterns. The pattern was again followed by the computer, information and communications industries in the late s when much of the national productivity gains occurred in these industries. Certain factors are critical for determining productivity growth. The Office for National Statistics UK identifies five drivers that interact to underlie long-term productivity performance: The more capital workers have at their disposal, generally the better they are able to do their jobs, producing more and better quality output.

Innovation is the successful exploitation of new ideas. New ideas can take the form of new technologies, new products or new corporate structures and ways of working. Speeding up the diffusion of innovations can boost productivity. Skills are defined as the quantity and quality of labour of different types available in an economy. Skills complement physical capital, and are needed to take advantage of investment in new technologies and organisational structures.

Enterprise is defined as the seizing of new business opportunities by both start-ups and existing firms. New enterprises compete with existing firms by new ideas and technologies increasing competition. Entrepreneurs are able to combine factors of production and new technologies forcing existing firms to adapt or exit the market. Competition improves productivity by creating incentives to innovate and ensures that resources are allocated to the most efficient firms.

It also forces existing firms to organise work more effectively through imitations of organisational structures and technology. Individual and team productivity[ edit ] See also: Programming productivity Technology has enabled massive personal productivity gains—computers, spreadsheets, email, and other advances have made it possible for a knowledge worker to seemingly produce more in a day then was previously possible in a year.

Having an effective or knowledgeable supervisor for example a supervisor who uses the Management by objectives method has an easier time motivating their employees to produce more in quantity and quality. An employee who has an effective supervisor, motivating them to be more productive is likely to experience a new level of job satisfaction thereby becoming a driver of productivity itself. Companies that have these hierarchy removed and have their employees work more in teams are called Liberated companies or "Freedom inc.

The Toyota Way Business productivity[ edit ] Productivity is one of the main concerns of business management and engineering. Many companies have formal programs for continuously improving productivity, such as a production assurance program. Whether they have a formal program or not, companies are constantly looking for ways to improve quality, reduce downtime and inputs of labor, materials, energy and purchased services.

Often simple changes to operating methods or processes increase productivity, but the biggest gains are normally from adopting new technologies, which may require capital expenditures for new equipment, computers or software. Modern productivity science owes much to formal investigations that are associated with scientific management.

In truth, proper planning and procedures are more likely to help than anything else. Productivity paradox Overall productivity growth was relatively slow from the s through the early s. The matter is subject to a continuing debate that has grown beyond questioning whether just computers can significantly increase productivity to whether the potential to increase productivity is becoming exhausted.

The calculations of productivity of a nation or an industry are based on the time series of the SNA, System of National Accounts. National accounting is a system based on the recommendations of the UN SNA 93 to measure total production and total income of a nation and how they are used. Saari9 International or national productivity growth stems from a complex interaction of factors.

Some of the most important immediate factors include technological change, organizational change, industry restructuring and resource reallocation, as well as economies of scale and scope. A nation's average productivity level can also be affected by the movement of resources from low-productivity to high-productivity industries and activities. Over time, other factors such as research and development and innovative effort, the development of human capital through education, and incentives from stronger competition promote the search for productivity improvements and the ability to achieve them.