the teacher-student relationship through the lens of attachment theory. . the word “teacher” first implies that the teacher is primarily responsible for setting the. theory research with K students. Then we propose improving (healthy) student-teacher attachments, and, therefore in relation to a real problem they are solving”. In studying the word “attachment”, the authors' state that “ Attachment. Attachment theory and the teacher–student relationship: a practical guide for teachers, teacher educators and school leaders. by Philip Riley.
Moreover, the children's appraisal of the teacher as less rejecting predicted higher teacher-reported student academic functioning [ 1 ].
Murray, Murray, and Waas [ 27 ] indicated, however, that theoretical and statistical questions related to the examination of teacher-child relationship quality remain unanswered. For example, previous investigations have used teacher reports to assess the quality of teacher-child relationships and the nature of children's school adaptation [ 52630 ].
Reliance on teacher reports to assess both predictor and criterion variables has probably led to exaggerated estimates of the importance of these relationships [ 27 ]. Moreover, research conducted by Murray et al. Although such analyses can be useful in predicting the adaptation of hypothetical students based on distinct levels of appraisal of teacher rejection or distinct levels of hypothetical teacher's feelings of closeness to student, there may be no student with these combinations of teacher-child relationships [ 25 ].
In other words, these analyses do little to increase our understanding of the configuration of real students' affective context, as defined by different styles of teacher-student attachment-like relationships, and by the associations between them and students' school adaptation. The alternative cluster-analysis approach adopted in the present study, which is consistent with a person-centered agenda, prioritizes individuals in their context as the unit of research [ 20 ].
The Present Study The present study observed one hundred pairs comprised of Israeli homeroom teachers and their regular public school students of the same ethnic origin Israeli Jews. According to the Policy Circular of the Israeli Ministry of Education [ 16 ], homeroom teachers hold their position for a minimum of two and a maximum of three years.
The post requires that the teachers fulfill three central roles: Thus, homeroom teachers in Israel function as the children's main school address for dealing with personal issues, and are de facto school caregiver figures.
Given the role of Israeli homeroom teachers, the purpose of the present study was to use both student and teacher points of views regarding their relationships to identify the affective context of students, as defined by the following attachment dimensions: We used two statistical approaches to examine our data: Second, it makes it possible to examine the differences between secure and insecure teacher-student attachment-like school adaptation.
To avoid relying on homeroom teacher and student reports in assessing both predictor and criterion variables, we asked the student's special-subject teacher to act as experienced professional third-party observer. We also provided an objective standardized measure of school adjustment. Therefore, we controlled statistically for these influences.
Finally, we hypothesized that c compared to the children in the insecure teacher-student attachment-like group, the children in the secure teacher-student attachment-like group would show better socio-emotional, behavioral, and academic school adaptation. Participants The sample consisted of homeroom teacher-student pairs.
The sample was recruited from schools in a mid-low-socio-economic status area in northern Israel. Procedure The sampling plan of the present study was designed to capture the phenomena related to Israeli teacher-student relationship quality beyond specific teacher, student, classroom, special-subject teacher, and school contexts. To this end, the sample consisted of homeroom teacher-student pairs comprising of 44 homeroom teachers students per class from 44 regular public schools, using 56 special-subject teachers as third-party observers.PSYCHOTHERAPY - John Bowlby
Data were collected by interviewers at two points in time during a single school year. Members of the research team were special-education BA graduates doing their internship year in the participating schools.
At Time 1, four months after the start of the school year, the researchers were asked to recruit experienced homeroom teachers. To use a sample within the range of the average IQ of the population, we sought to recruit students who based on school records at Time 1 showed academic achievements within their class average. Members of the research team then met with each child and homeroom teacher individually, in school.
All meetings took place outside the classroom to ensure that students felt as comfortable as possible answering questions about their relationships with their homeroom teacher. All children were told that their responses to all questions were anonymous and would not be shared with anyone at the school. Four months later Time 2children's school socio-emotional adaptation was examined using special-subject teacher, primarily English, math, or language teachers who had taught the students three or more lessons per week during the academic year.
Special-subject teachers were administered individually the Teacher-Child Rating Scale - T-CRS [ 10 ] 29 special-subject teachers were interviewed twice, 14 were interviewed three times. Finally, the reading comprehension, written expression, and math proficiency scores of each participant child were obtained from school records at the end of the school year.
All the research measurements were completed individually by the participants, who were assembled by the research team in the schools. The research team then checked the measures for missing data and requested additional information if necessary. Student Socio-economic Background Indicators According to Yair [ 40 ], the principal indicators of higher levels of socio-economic status in Israel include the wage of the main earner father derived from his occupation, and a low ratio of residents per rooms.
This is a item self-report questionnaire relating to various facets of attachment. Moreover, school contexts pose many challenges that constrain the trajectories of children's emotional development Verschueren et al. Over the last 30 years, with the increase of maternal employment rates, children started attending pre school at increasingly earlier ages Lamb et al.
Preschool care and early education has become increasingly specialized, as working parents have less and less time to serve as primary caregivers and educators for their children. With this temporal change in the modal forms of early childcare and education, research concerning teacher—child relationships has become a central topic in the developmental and education sciences. Research has highlighted the importance of teacher-student relationship quality in all school age groups Cyr and van IJzendoorn, ; Sabol and Pianta, In fact, the quality of this relationship, has been identified as a critical support for academic success Martin et al.
However, several studies found that the teacher student relation is related to both contextual and individual characteristics of the child Hamre and Pianta, For example, the time children spend at school, motivation to learn or disruptive behavior can influence teacher behavior and consequently teacher—child relation.
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School teachers are obligated to emphasize the educational goals of the larger community and spend less and less time enacting the protective and nurturing roles characteristic of attachment figures. So, another aim of the present study is to verify the assumption that teachers would perceive themselves as having a better quality relationship with children who display ability to achieve the curriculum goals more rapidly than their peers. Additionally, poor language skills, and in particular poor verbal comprehension at school entry are an indicator of low school readiness and a risk for subsequent academic problems NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, Partenio and Taylor found that IQ was the best predictor of teacher ratings on classroom performance, motivation to learn, and learning potential of students.
On the other hand Spilt et al. Hence, children's verbal abilities seem to be an important variable to include in models of teacher—child relationships. Methods Participants The participants were 52 children 25 boys from two preschools in the district of Lisbon. Participants are part of a larger longitudinal study of child social and emotional adaptation in the family and the peer group.
Children were from two-parent families: All families were middle class by the standards of the local community. Four teachers also participated in the study. All of these had completed a University Degree in preschool Education.
The age of the teachers ranged between 29 and 50 years of age and service time between 6 and 25 years. Procedures The research team contacted the preschool centers using a public list available in official registries and invited them to participate in the survey. The two instruments were applied individually to the child by independent research assistants with specific training: The teacher completed a questionnaire for each child at the end of the spring semester.
The ASCT was used to assess children's symbolic attachment representations. A series of story-stems were presented to the child to elicit narratives regarding attachment behaviors toward caregivers.
Story stems were presented using dolls and household props, including a mother, father, child, sibling, a pet dog, kitchen equipment, living room and bedroom furniture, etc. The child doll was the same sex and ethnicity as the child being assessed. The assessments took place in a quiet area outside the classroom or in the classroom at a time when other children were elsewhere. The interviewer invited the child to play the story completion game together, with the interviewer beginning each story and the child finishing the story.
The child was first presented with a story stem about a birthday party with a pleasant but non-attachment related theme.
This was intended as a warm-up story and was not scored. The child was then presented with the five primary attachment-related story-stems e.
All stories were rated independently by two trained coders who were blind to any other information about the child, Inter-observer reliability was assessed through Intra Class Correlations, and all 5 narratives showed strong significant coefficients, ranging from 0. Stories were rated from videotapes on an eight-point scale for Security, developed by Maia et al.
This scale was inspired by Heller's work who, based on preexistent contributions Robinson et al. The Security score is a broad parameter which considers plot coherence and the extension to which each attachment-related challenge is acknowledged and successfully dealt by the child, derived after a global evaluation of the narrative and of the performance at the task is done. On their turn, secure and coherent attachment story resolutions were predicted by precedent observational measures of child—mother attachment.
In sum, the Security score is a broad dimension that considers how effectively the child addressed the major issues in the story and uses the caregivers as secure base. Teachers' ratings of child secure base behavior and emotion regulation PCV-P. A factor analysis identified two dimensions describing the child teacher relationship: They were told that the questionnaire items were intended to characterize the relationship they had established with each participating child in the classroom and their responses should reflect each child's behavior over the past 2 months of the term.
In the developmental study Dias et al. In the present study, Cronbach's alpha coefficients for both subscales were also satisfactory 0. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: The WPPSI consists of 12 sub-tests of which 6 subtests are perceptual-motor and 6 subtests are verbal.
The scores of the 12 subtests are combined in three composite scores: In this study only the verbal IQ was used. The verbal IQ score is composed by the following subtests: Results Preliminary analyses tested for relations between the demographic indicators i.
In no instance were the teachers' ratings or the attachment representations associated significantly with these demographic variables. Associations among the Study Variables As shown in Table 1the teacher-rated secure base is significantly associated with both attachment security and verbal IQ. Attachment security is also associated with verbal IQ. Finally, emotional regulation is associated with gender: Correlations between all variables in the study.
Predicting Teachers' Ratings of Secure Base Behavior Table 1 shows that the child's representation of a secure attachment is significantly correlated with both teachers' ratings of secure base behavior and child's verbal IQ.
Consequently, in the next analysis we tested whether or not secure attachment representations interacted with verbal IQ to predict teachers' ratings of child's secure base behavior. To test this possibility, we regressed the teachers' ratings of child's secure base behavior on the ASCT security score, the verbal IQ score, and their interaction. In this analysis, both main effects and their interaction were significant predictors of the teachers' ratings.
As shown in Table 2both main effects and their interaction were unique, significant predictors of the teachers' ratings of secure base behavior in the regression analysis, suggesting a possible moderating effect of attachment security on the association between verbal IQ and ratings of child secure base behavior. To test for moderation effects, the relation between verbal IQ and teachers' ratings of secure base behavior was examined at three levels of attachment security. We plotted the simple slopes between teachers' ratings of secure base behavior and verbal IQ at three different levels of security for child's representations of attachment Figure 1.
The estimates for the relation between verbal IQ and teachers' ratings of secure base behavior at the low, average and high values of attachment security were: